It shares maritime borders with Japan by the Sea of Okhotsk and the U. The East Slavs emerged as a recognizable group in Europe between the 3rd and 8th centuries AD.
 Founded and ruled by a Varangian warrior elite and their descendants, the medieval state of Rus arose in the 9th century. In 988 it adopted Orthodox Christianity from the Byzantine Empire,  beginning the synthesis of Byzantine and Slavic cultures that defined Russian culture for the next millennium.  Rus' ultimately disintegrated into a number of smaller states; most of the Rus' lands were overrun by the Mongol invasion and became tributaries of the nomadic Golden Horde in the 13th century.  The Grand Duchy of Moscow gradually reunified the surrounding Russian principalities, achieved independence from the Golden Horde, and came to dominate the cultural and political legacy of Kievan Rus'.  Following the Russian Revolution, the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic became the largest and leading constituent of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, the world's first constitutionally socialist state.
 The Soviet Union played a decisive role in the Allied victory in World War II,  and emerged as a recognized superpower and rival to the United States during the Cold War. The Soviet era saw some of the most significant technological achievements of the 20th century, including the world's first human-made satellite and the launching of the first humans in space. By the end of 1990, the Soviet Union had the world's second largest economy, largest standing military in the world and the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction.
 Following the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991, twelve independent republics emerged from the USSR: Russia, Ukraine, Belarus, Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Kyrgyzstan, Moldova, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan and the Baltic states regained independence: Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania; the Russian SFSR reconstituted itself as the Russian Federation and is recognized as the continuing legal personality and sole successor state of the Soviet Union.  It is governed as a federal semi-presidential republic. The Russian economy ranks as the twelfth largest by nominal GDP and sixth largest by purchasing power parity in 2015. Russia's extensive mineral and energy resources are the largest such reserves in the world,  making it one of the leading producers of oil and natural gas globally.  The country is one of the five recognized nuclear weapons states and possesses the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction.  Russia is a great power as well as a regional power and has been characterised as a potential superpower. It is a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council, as well as a member of the G20, the Council of Europe, the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC), the Shanghai Cooperation Organisation (SCO), the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE), and the World Trade Organization (WTO), as well as being the leading member of the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS), the Collective Security Treaty Organization (CSTO) and one of the five members of the Eurasian Economic Union (EEU), along with Armenia, Belarus, Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan. History Timeline Proto-Indo-Europeans Scythians East Slavs Rus' Khaganate Kievan Rus' Novgorod Republic Vladimir-Suzdal Grand Duchy of Moscow Tsardom of Russia Russian Empire Russian Republic Russian SFSR Soviet Union Russian Federation By topic Economy Military Journalism? Postal Coat of Arms of the Russian Federation. Svg Geography Subdivisions Borders Earthquakes Geology European Russia Caucasus Mountains North Caucasus Caspian Sea Ural Mountains West Siberian Plain Siberia Russian Far East North Asia Extreme points Cities and towns Islands Lakes Rivers Volcanoes Climate Mountains Politics Conscription Constitution Elections Presidential elections Federal budget Foreign relations Freedom of assembly Freedom of press Media Government Human rights Judiciary Law Citizenship Civil Service Law enforcement (Prisons) Liberalism Military Opposition Political parties President of Russia Economy Agriculture Aircraft industry Car industry Banking Central Bank Corruption Defence industry Economic regions Energy Fishing industry Forestry Gambling Mining Petroleum industry Russian ruble Russian oligarchs Space industry Shipbuilding Trade unions Taxation Tourism Transport Telecommunications Waste Society Demographics Citizens Abortion Alcoholism Crime Education Healthcare Ethnic groups Languages LGBT Immigration Illegal Prostitution Racism Religion Suicide Water supply and sanitation Women Culture Architecture Art Literature Ballet Cinema Graffiti Inventions Media Music Public holidays Opera Language Cuisine Martial arts Folklore Television Internet National anthem Coat of arms National flag Sports Outline Book Category Portal [hide] v t e Russian souvenirs, arts and crafts Matryoshka Samovar Handicrafts Gorodets painting Gzhel Filimonovo toy Kholmogory bone carving Khokhloma Russian lacquer art Fedoskino miniature Kholuy miniature Mstyora miniature Palekh miniature Russian icons Zhostovo painting Ushanka Balalaika Tableware Table-glass Podstakannik Russian porcelain Dulyovo porcelain Samovar Clothing Afghanka Budenovka Cherkeska French Gymnastyorka Kokoshnik Kosovorotka Kaftan Lapti Orenburg shawl Papakha Peaked cap Podvorotnichok Sailor cap Sarafan Spetsodezhda Telnyashka Ushanka Valenki Musical instruments Balalaika Garmon Bayan Russian guitar Musical spoons Treshchotka Toys Bird of Happiness Cheburashka Filimonovo toy Dymkovo toys Kargopol toys Matryoshka doll Petrushka Other Izba Fabergé egg Shashka Tula pryanik [hide] v t e Russia Subdivisions of Russia Federal subjects Republics Adygea Altai Bashkortostan Buryatia Chechnya Chuvashia Crimea1 Dagestan Ingushetia Kabardino-Balkaria Kalmykia Karachay-Cherkessia Karelia Khakassia Komi Mari El Mordovia North Ossetia-Alania Sakha Tatarstan Tuva Udmurtia Krais Altai Kamchatka Khabarovsk Krasnodar Krasnoyarsk Perm Primorsky Stavropol Zabaykalsky Oblasts Amur Arkhangelsk Astrakhan Belgorod Bryansk Chelyabinsk Irkutsk Ivanovo Kaliningrad Kaluga Kemerovo Kirov Kostroma Kurgan Kursk Leningrad Lipetsk Magadan Moscow Murmansk Nizhny Novgorod Novgorod Novosibirsk Omsk Orenburg Oryol Penza Pskov Rostov Ryazan Sakhalin Samara Saratov Smolensk Sverdlovsk Tambov Tomsk Tula Tver Tyumen Ulyanovsk Vladimir Volgograd Vologda Voronezh Yaroslavl Federal cities Moscow St. Svg Geographic locale [hide] v t e Sovereign states and dependencies of Europe Sovereign states Albania Andorra Armenia2 Austria Azerbaijan Belarus Belgium Bosnia and Herzegovina Bulgaria Croatia Cyprus2 Czech Republic Denmark Estonia Finland France Georgia Germany Greece Hungary Iceland1 Ireland Italy Kazakhstan Latvia Liechtenstein Lithuania Luxembourg Macedonia Malta Moldova Monaco Montenegro Netherlands Norway Poland Portugal Romania Russia San Marino Serbia Slovakia Slovenia Spain Sweden Switzerland Turkey Ukraine United Kingdom Vatican City Europe orthographic Caucasus Urals boundary (with borders). Svg States with limited recognition Abkhazia2 Artsakh2 Kosovo Northern Cyprus2 South Ossetia2 Transnistria Dependencies Denmark Faroe Islands1 autonomous country of the Kingdom of Denmark United Kingdom Akrotiri and Dhekelia2 Sovereign Base Areas Gibraltar British Overseas Territory Guernsey Isle of Man Jersey Crown dependencies Special areas of internal sovereignty Finland Åland Islands autonomous region subject to the Åland Convention of 1921 Norway Svalbard unincorporated area subject to the Svalbard Treaty United Kingdom Northern Ireland country of the United Kingdom subject to the British-Irish Agreement 1 Oceanic islands within the vicinity of Europe are usually grouped with the continent even though they are not situated on its continental shelf.
2 Some countries completely outside the conventional geographical boundaries of Europe are commonly associated with the continent due to ethnological links. [hide] v t e Countries and dependencies of Asia Abkhazia Afghanistan Akrotiri and Dhekelia Armenia Artsakh Azerbaijan Bahrain Bangladesh Bhutan Brunei Cambodia China Christmas Island Cocos (Keeling) Islands Cyprus Egypt Georgia Hong Kong India British Indian Ocean Territory Indonesia Iran Iraq Israel Japan Jordan Kazakhstan North Korea South Korea Kuwait Kyrgyzstan Laos Lebanon Macau Malaysia Maldives Mongolia Myanmar Nepal Northern Cyprus Oman Palestine Pakistan Philippines Qatar Russia Saudi Arabia Singapore South Ossetia Sri Lanka Syria Taiwan Tajikistan Thailand East Timor (Timor-Leste) Turkey Turkmenistan United Arab Emirates Uzbekistan Vietnam Yemen Asia (orthographic projection). Svg [hide] v t e Countries bordering the Baltic Sea Denmark Estonia Finland Germany Latvia Lithuania Poland Russia Sweden [hide] v t e Black Sea Countries bordering the Black Sea Bulgaria Georgia Romania Russia Turkey Ukraine Cities Batumi Burgas Constan? A Giresun Hopa Istanbul Kerch Mangalia Navodari Novorossiysk Odessa Ordu Poti Rize Samsun Sevastopol Sochi Sukhumi1 Trabzon Varna Yalta Zonguldak 1 Disputed statehood - partial international recognition, but considered by most countries to be Georgian territory. [hide] International organizations [hide] v t e Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) Nations Australia Brunei Canada Chile China Hong Kong¹ Indonesia Japan South Korea Malaysia Mexico New Zealand Papua New Guinea Peru Philippines Russia Singapore Chinese Taipei² Thailand United States Vietnam Summits 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018 Other APEC Business Travel Card APEC blue APEC Climate Center APEC Youth Science Festival 1.
A special administrative region of China, participates as "Hong Kong, China"; 2. Blue: Later (current) full members.
Vincent and the Grenadines Samoa Saudi Arabia Senegal Seychelles Sierra Leone Singapore Solomon Islands South Africa Sri Lanka Suriname Swaziland Switzerland Tajikistan Taiwan2 Tanzania Thailand Togo Tonga Trinidad and Tobago Tunisia Turkey Uganda Ukraine United Arab Emirates United States Uruguay Venezuela Vietnam Yemen Zambia Zimbabwe European Union Austria Belgium Bulgaria Croatia Cyprus Czech Republic Denmark Estonia Finland France Germany Greece Hungary Ireland Italy Latvia Lithuania Luxembourg Malta Netherlands Poland Portugal Romania Slovakia Slovenia Spain Sweden United Kingdom Special administrative regions of the People's Republic of China, participates as "Hong Kong, China" and "Macao China". Jus (About this sound listen), officially the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics Russian:???
Soyúz Sovétskikh Sotsialistícheskikh Respúblik, IPA: s? K (About this sound listen), abbreviated as the USSR Russian:???? SSSR, was a socialist state in Eurasia that existed from 1922 to 1991. Nominally a union of multiple national Soviet republics, [a] its government and economy were highly centralized.The country was a one-party state, governed by the Communist Party with Moscow as its capital in its largest republic, the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic. Other major urban centres were Leningrad, Kiev, Minsk, Tashkent and Novosibirsk. The Soviet Union was one of the five recognized nuclear weapons states and possessed the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction.  It was a founding permanent member of the United Nations Security Council, as well as a member of the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE) and the leading member of the Council for Mutual Economic Assistance (CMEA) and the Warsaw Pact. The Soviet Union had its roots in the October Revolution of 1917, when the Bolsheviks, led by Vladimir Lenin, overthrew the Russian Provisional Government which had replaced Tsar Nicholas II during World War I. In 1922, after a civil war, the Soviet Union was formed with the unification of the Russian, Transcaucasian, Ukrainian and Byelorussian republics. Following Lenin's death in 1924 and a brief power struggle, Joseph Stalin came to power in the mid-1920s. Under Stalin's leadership, the Soviet Union transitioned from a market economy into a centrally planned economy which led to a period of rapid industrialization and collectivization.
As industrial production skyrocketed, the Soviet Union achieved full employment, implemented a universal healthcare system, sharply reduced illiteracy, and provided guarantees of paid vacations, rest homes, and recreational clubs. This period of industrialization was a time of enormous improvements in the standard of living for millions of people in the country, starkly contrasting with the situations of other countries during the Great Depression, but was also a time characterized by major institutional shortcomings and failures. In the 1930s, with the rise of fascism in Europe, the Communist Party pursued aggressive campaigns to suppress potential counter-revolution, fermenting political paranoia which culminated in the Great Purge in which extrajudicial arrests and executions of suspected counter-revolutionaries led to an estimated 600,000 deaths.
As a result of these mass arrests, penal labor through the Gulag system was used to construct infrastructure projects, though this consistently proved to be an inefficient system throughout its existence.  Increased demand for agricultural products to pay for industrialization combined with a relatively low harvest yield led to the famine of 1932-33 in which an estimated 2.4 to 4 million people died in the country's agricultural centers of Ukraine, southern Russia, and Kazakhstan.  After the rise of Adolf Hitler in Germany, Stalin tried repeatedly to form an anti-fascist alliance with other European countries. However, finding no support, shortly before World War II, the Soviet Union became the last major country to sign a treaty with Germany with the Molotov-Ribbentrop Pact, after which the two countries invaded Poland in September 1939.In June 1941, the pact collapsed as Germany invaded the Soviet Union, opening the largest and bloodiest theatre of war in history. Soviet war casualties accounted for the highest proportion of the conflict in the effort of acquiring the upper hand over Axis forces at intense battles such as Stalingrad and Kursk. The territories overtaken by the Red Army became satellite states of the Soviet Union; the postwar division of Europe into capitalist and communist halves would lead to increased tensions with the West, led by the United States. The Cold War emerged by 1947, as the Eastern Bloc, united under the Warsaw Pact in 1955, confronted the Western Bloc, united under NATO in 1949.
On 5 March 1953, Stalin died and was quickly succeeded by Nikita Khrushchev, who in 1956 denounced Stalin and began the De-Stalinization of Soviet society through the Khrushchev Thaw. The Soviet Union took an early lead in the Space Race, with the first artificial satellite and the first human spaceflight. Khrushchev was removed from power by his colleagues in 1964 and was succeeded as head of state by Leonid Brezhnev.In the 1970s, there was a brief détente of relations with the United States, but tensions resumed with the Soviet-Afghan War in 1979. In the mid-1980s, the last Soviet leader, Mikhail Gorbachev, sought to reform and liberalize the economy through his policies of glasnost (government transparency) and perestroika (openness, restructuring). Under Gorbachev, the role of the Communist Party in governing the state was removed from the constitution, causing a surge of severe political instability to set in. The Cold War ended during his tenure, and in 1989, Soviet satellite states in Eastern Europe overthrew their respective communist governments. With the rise of strong nationalist and separatist movements inside the union republics, Gorbachev tried to avert a dissolution of the Soviet Union in the post-Cold War era. A March 1991 referendum, boycotted by some republics, resulted in a majority of participating citizens voting in favor of preserving the union as a renewed federation. Gorbachev's power was greatly diminished after Russian President Boris Yeltsin played a high-profile role in facing down an abortive August 1991 coup d'état attempted by Communist Party hardliners. On 25 December 1991, Gorbachev resigned and the remaining twelve constituent republics emerged as independent post-Soviet states. The Russian Federation-formerly the Russian SFSR-assumed the Soviet Union's rights and obligations and is recognized as the successor state of the Soviet Union.
 In summing up the international ramifications of these events, Vladislav Zubok stated: The collapse of the Soviet empire was an event of epochal geopolitical, military, ideological and economic significance. Soviet Union topics History Index of Soviet Union-related articles Russian Revolution February October Russian Civil War Russian SFSR USSR creation treaty New Economic Policy Stalinism Great Purge Great Patriotic War (World War II) Cold War Khrushchev Thaw 1965 reform Stagnation Perestroika Glasnost Revolutions of 1989 Dissolution Nostalgia Post-Soviet states State Emblem of the Soviet Union. The Soviet Union officially recognized their independence on September 6, 1991, prior to its final dissolution three months later. [hide] v t e Flag of the Soviet Union.
2 Kazak ASSR was called Kirghiz ASSR until 1925. Vintage stamps and rare coins sale online! Type of capital investments, as investments in antiques is growing in popularity more and more each day.It's quite a profitable and safe investment, as prices for antiques are steadily growing (on average 20% per year), which often exceeds the growth of stocks in the stock market. In addition, investment in antiques enriches not only materially bringing income but also spiritually, bringing esthetic pleasure. It is necessary to understand what things really have the potential to increase in value and which, on the contrary, are hopeless. The word "antique" has Latin roots and means "old". The core value of antiques is in the fact that they are old.
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